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Module 4 – Wildlife, Domesticated Animals, and Land Use

Slide 4 - Animals Are a Produce Safety Concern Because They:

  • Langholz, J., & Jay-Russell, M. (2013). Potential role of wildlife in pathogenic contamination of fresh produce. Hum Wildl Interact, 7(1), 140–157.
  • Jay, M.T., Cooley, M., Carychao, D., Wiscomb, G.W., Sweitzer, R.A., Crawford‐Miksza, L., Farrar, J.A., Lau, D.K., O'Connell, J., Millington, A., Asmundson, R.V., Atwill, E.R., & Mandrell, R.E. (2007). Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feral Swine near Spinach Fields and Cattle, Central California Coast. Emerg Infect Dis, 13(12), 1908–1911.

Slide 5 - Managing Food Safety on the Farm Can Be a Complex Issue!

Slide 7 - Assessing Risks: Wildlife

  • Nielsen, E.M., Skov, M.N., Madsen, J.J., Lodal, J., Jespersen, J.B., & Baggesen, D.L. (2004). Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in wild birds and rodents in close proximity to farms. Appl Environ Micro, 70(11), 6944–6947.
  • Laidler, M.R., Tourdjman, M., Buser, G.L., Hostetler, T., Repp, K.K., Leman, R., Samadpour, M., Keene, W.E. (2013). Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of locally grown strawberries contaminated by deer. Clin Infect Dis, 57(8), 1129–1134.
  • Gruszynski, K., Pao, S., Kim, C., Toney, D., Wright, K., Ross, P.G., Colon, A., & Levine, S. (2014). Evaluating Wildlife as a Potential Source of Salmonella serotype Newport (JJPX01.0061) Contamination for Tomatoes on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Zoonoses and Public Health, 61(3), 202–207.

Slide 8 - Co-Management: Striking a Balance

Slide 9 - Co-Management Considerations

  • Karp, D.S., Gennet, S., Kilonzo, C., Partyka, M., Chaumont, N., Atwill, E.R., & Kremen, C. (2015). Co-managing Fresh Produce for Nature Conservation and Food Safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(35), 11126–11131.

Slide 12 - Deterring Wildlife

  • Williams-Whitmer, L.M., Brittingham, M.C., & Casalena, M.J. (1999). Penn State Extension: Wildlife Damage Control—Geese, Ducks, and Swans
  • Conover, M. (2001). Resolving human–wildlife conflicts: the science of wildlife damage management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA
  • Gilsdorf, J.M., Hygnstrom, S.E., & VerCauteren, K.C. (2003). Use of frightening devices in wildlife damage management. USDA National Wildlife Research Center—Staff Publications.
  • Dickman, A.J. (2010). Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human–wildlife conflict. Animal Conserv, 13(5), 458–466.
  • Anderson, A., et al. (2013). Bird damage to select fruit crops: The cost of damage and benefits of control in five states. Crop Protect, 52, 103–106.
  • Rivadeneira, P. (2018). Use of raptors to prevent wild bird and rodent intrusion into fresh produce fields. Poster presented at the Center for Produce Safety Annual Research Symposium.

Slide 13 - Deterring Wildlife

  • Baldwin, R.A., Salmon, T.P., Schmidt, R.H., & Timm, R.M. (2013). Wildlife pests of California agriculture: Regional variability and subsequent impacts on management. Crop Protect, 46, 29–37.
  • VerCauteren, K.C., Seward, N.W., Hirchert, D.L., Jones, M.L., & Beckerman, S.F. (2005). Dogs for reducing wildlife damage to organic crops: A case study. Nolte DL, Fagerstone KA (eds) Proceedings of the Eleventh Wildlife Damage Management Conference. National Wildlife Research Center, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture, 286–293.

Slide 14 - Wildlife & Livestock Interactions

  • Langholz, J., & Jay-Russell, M. (2013). Potential role of wildlife in pathogenic contamination of fresh produce. Hum Wildl Interact, 7(1), 140–157.
  • Lengacher, B., Kline, T.R., Harpster. L, Williams, M.L., & LeJeune, J.T. (2010). Low Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Horses in Ohio USA. J Food Prot, 73(11), 2089–2092.

Slide 15 - Domesticated Animals on the Farm

  • Jay-Russell, M.T., Hake, A.F., Bengson, Y., Thiptara, A., & Nguyen, T. (2014). Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border. PLoS ONE 9(11): e113433.
  • Sanderson, M.W., Sargeant, J.M., Shi, X., Nagaraja, T.G., Zurek, L., & Alam, M.J. (2006). Longitudinal emergence and distribution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 genotypes in a beef feedlot. Appl Environ Micro, 72(12), 7614–7619.

Slide 16 - Assessing Risks: Domesticated Animals

  • Wang, G., Zhao, T., & Doyle, M.P. (1996). Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine feces. Appl Environ Micro, 62(7), 2567–2570.

Slide 17 - Assess Risks BEFORE Planting

  • Strawn, L.K., Fortes, E.D., Bihn, E.A., Nightingale, K.K., Gröhn, Y.T., Worobo, R.W., Wiedmann, M., Bergholz, P.W. (2013). Landscape and meteorological factors affecting prevalence of three food-borne pathogens in fruit and vegetable farms. Appl Environ Micro, 79(2), 588–600.

Slide 19 - Pets

  • Hale, C.R., et al. (2012). Estimates of enteric illness attributable to contact with animals and their environments in the United States. Clin Infect Dis, 54(suppl 5), S472–S479.
  • Roug, A., Byrne, B.A., Conrad, P.A., & Miller, W.A. (2013). Zoonotic fecal pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in county fair animals. Comparative Immune, Micro, and Infect Dis, 36(3), 303–308.

Slide 20 - Pre-Harvest Assessment

  • Park, S., Szonyi, B., Gautam, R., Nightingale, K., Anciso, J., & Ivanek, R. (2012) Risk factors for microbial contamination in fruits and vegetables at the pre-harvest level: a systematic review. J Food Prot, 75(11), 2055–2081.

Slide 21 - Corrective Actions: What To Do If There's Contamination