Grower Training Manual References and Links

PSA Curriculum Module Resources and References Listed in the order of appearance in each printed module.

Module 1 – Introduction to Produce Safety

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  • Iowa State University Extension and Outreach: Lesson 4 Food Safety—FATTOM
  • Sugiyama, H., & Yang, K.H. (1975). Growth potential of Clostridium botulinum in fresh mushrooms packaged in semipermeable plastic film. Appl Microbiol, 30(6), 964–969.

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  • Beuchat, L.R. (1996). Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce. J Food Prot, 59(2), 204–216.
  • Scallan, E., Hoekstra, R.M., Angulo, F.J., Tauxe, R.V., Widdowson, M.A., Roy, S.L., et al. (2011). Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis, 17(1), 7–15.
  • Scallan, E., Griffin, P.M., Angulo, F.J., Tauxe, R.V., & Hoekstra, R.M. (2011). Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—unspecified agents. Emerg Infect Dis, 17(1), 16.
  • Sivapalasingam, S., Friedman, C.R., Cohen, L., & Tauxe, R.V. (2004). Fresh produce: a growing cause of outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States, 1973 through 1997. J Food Prot, 67(10), 2342–2353.

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  • Beuchat, L.R. (2002). Difficulties in eliminating human pathogenic microorganisms on raw fruits and vegetables. In XXVI International Horticultural Congress: Horticulture, Art and Science for Life-The Colloquia Presentations, 642, 151–160.
  • Fatemi, P., LaBorde, L.F., Patton, J., Sapers, G.M., Annous, B., & Knabel, S.J., (2006). Influence of punctures, cuts and apple surface morphologies on penetration and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Food Prot, 69(2), 267–275.

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  • Beuchat, L.R. (2002). Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables. Microb Infect, 4(4), 413–423.
  • Park, S., Szonyi, B., Gautam, R., et al. (2012). Risk factors for microbial contamination in fruits and vegetables at the pre-harvest level: a systematic review. J Food Prot, 75(11), 2055–2081.
  • Strawn, L.K., Fortes, E.D., Bihn, E.A., et al. (2013). Landscape and meteorological factors affecting prevalence of three food-borne pathogens in fruit and vegetable farms. Appl Environ Micro, 79(2), 588–600.

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  • Todd, E., Greig, J.D., Bartleson, C.A., & Michaels, B.S. (2009). Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 6. Transmission and survival of pathogens in the food processing and preparation environment. J Food Prot, 72(1), 202–219.

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  • Jay, M.T., Cooley, M., Carychao, D., et al. (2007). Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feral Swine near Spinach Fields and Cattle, Central California Coast. Emerg Infect Dis, 13(12), 1908–1911.
  • Islam, M., Doyle, M.P., Phatak, S.C., Millner, P., & Jiang, X. (2004). Persistence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and on leaf lettuce and parsley grown in fields treated with contaminated manure composts or irrigation water. J Food Prot, 67(7), 1365–1370.

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  • Bihn, E.A., Smart, C.D., Hoepting, C.A., & Worobo, R.W. (2013). Use of Surface Water in the Production of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: A Survey of Fresh Produce Growers and Their Water Management Practices. Food Prot Trends, 33(5), 307–314.
  • Mootian, G., Wu, W.H., Matthews, K.R. (2009). Transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from soil, water, and manure contaminated with low numbers of the pathogen to lettuce plants. J Food Prot, 72(11), 2308–2312.

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  • Jiang, X., Morgan, J., & Doyle, M.P. (2002). Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Manure-Amended Soil. Appl Envir Micro, 68(5), 2605–2609.
  • Erickson, M.C., et al. (2014). Examination of factors for use as potential predictors of human enteric pathogen survival in soil. J Appl Micro, 116(2), 335–349.

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Module 2 – Worker Health, Hygiene, and Training

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Module 3 – Soil Amendments

  • Doran, G., Sheridan, F., Delappe, N., O’Hare, C., Anderson, W., Corbett-Feeney, G., & Cormican, M. (2005). Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou contamination of commercially grown mushrooms. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 51(1), 73–76.
  • Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge, Subpart D—Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction, 40 CFR 503 (2015).  
  • Wilson, C.R., & Feucht, J.R. (2011). Composting Yard Waste. Colorado State University Extension.
  • Sludge News. Branded Products Containing Sewage Sludge.
  • Dunkley, C., Cunningham, D., Ritz, C., Dunkley, K., & Hinton, A. (2011). Using mortality compost in vegetable production: A comparison between summer and winter composting and its use in cabbage production. Agric Food and Anal Bacteriol, 1, 6–14.
  • Carter, J., Clark, B., Evanylo, G., Ketchum, A., Peer, B., Saunders, D., Simmerman, G., Smith, C., & Wahlberg, M. (2013). On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University—Virginia Cooperative Extension.
  • Koehler, B., Lazarus, B., & Meland, W. What’s manure worth? Calculator. University of Minnesota Extension.
  • Koelsch, R., & Wiederholt, R. (2015).  Environmental Benefits of Manure Application.
  • Cornell Waste Management Institute
  • Buchko, S.J., Holley, R.A., Olson, W.O., Gannon, V.P.J., & Veira, D.M. (2000). The effect of different grain diets on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by steers. J Food Prot, 63(11), 1467–1474.
  • LeJeune, J., & Kauffman, M.D. (2005). Effect of sand and sawdust bedding materials on the fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in dairy cows. App Environ Micro, 71(1), 326–330.
  • Doyle, M.P., & Erickson, M.C. (2006). Reducing the Carriage of Foodborne Pathogens in Livestock and Poultry. Poultry Science, 85(6), 960–973.
  • Langholz, J.A., & Jay-Russell, M.T. (2013). Potential role of wildlife in pathogenic contamination of fresh produce.  Hum Wildl Interact, 7(1), 140–157.
  • Jiang, X., Morgan, J., & Doyle, M.P. (2002). Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Manure‐Amended Soil. App Environ Micro, 68(5), 2605–2609.
  • Ingram, D., & Millner, P. (2007). Factors affecting compost tea as a potential source of Escherichia coli and Salmonella on fresh produce. J Food Prot, 70(4), 828–834.
  • Kim, J., Shepherd, J., Marion, W., & Jiang, X. (2009). Evaluating the Effect of Environmental Factors on Pathogen Regrowth in Compost Extract. Micro Ecology, 58(3), 498–508.
  • Renter, D.G., & Sargeant, J.M. (2002). Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 epidemiology and ecology in bovine production environments. Animal Health Research Reviews, 3(02), 83–94.
  • Weil, J.D., Beelman, R.B., & LaBorde, L.F. (2004). Destruction of Select Human Pathogenic Bacteria in Mushroom Compost During Phase II Pasteurization. Proceedings of the 2004 ISMS/NAMC conference in Miami, Florida, 365–371.
  • Jiang, X., & Shepherd, M. (2009). The Role of Manure and Compost in Produce Safety. Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce, 143.
  • Brinton, W.F., Storms, P., & Blewett, T.C. (2009). Occurrence and Levels of Fecal Indicators and Pathogenic Bacteria in Market‐Ready Recycled Organic Matter Composts. J Food Prot, 72(2), 332–339.
  • Eamens, G.J., Dorahy, C.J., Muirhead, L., Enman, B., Pengelly, P., Barchia, I.M., Gonsalves, J.R., & Cooper, K. (2011). Bacterial survival studies to assess the efficacy of static pile composting and above ground burial for disposal of bovine carcasses. J Appl Micro, 110(6), 1402–1413.
  • Rynk, R., van de Kemp, M, Wilson, G.B., Singley, M.E., Richard, T.L., Kolega, J.J., Gouin, F.R., Lalibery, L., Kay, D., Murphy, D.W., Hoitink, H.A., Brinton, W. (1992). On Farm Composting Handbook–NRAES. R. Rynk Ed. Ithaca, NY: PALS Publishing.
  • Frankenfield, A. Compost: How to make it and how much to use. Pennsylvania State University Extension.
  • Topoloff, A. (2015). A Resource Guide for Beginning Farmers. Iowa State University Extension & Outreach. Module 2: Composting.
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service. Field Office Technical Guides
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2002). Biosolids Technology Factsheet.
  • FSMA, Produce Safety Rule, 21 CFR 112 (2015), page 74415.
  • Harris, L.J., Berry, E.D., Blessington, T., Erickson, M., Jay-Russel, l.M., Jiang, X., Killinger, K., Michel, F.C., Millner, P., Schneider, K., Sharma, M., Suslow, T.V., Wang, L., & Worobo, R.W. (2013). A framework for developing research protocols for evaluation of microbial hazards and controls during production that pertain to the application of untreated soil amendments of animal origin on land used to grow produce that may be consumed raw. J Food Prot, 76(6), 1062–1084.
  • National Organic Program, Subpart C—Organic Production and Handling Requirements, 7 CFR 205 (2015), § 205.203(c)(1)(ii and iii).
  • Strawn, L.K., Fortes, E.D., Bihn, E.A., Nightingale, K.K., Gröhn, Y.T., Worobo, R.W., Wiedmann, M., & Bergholz, P.W. (2013). Landscape and meteorological factors affecting prevalence of three food-borne pathogens in fruit and vegetable farms. Appl Environ Micro, 79(2), 588–600.

Module 4 – Wildlife, Domesticated Animals, and Land Use

  • Langholz, J., & Jay-Russell, M. (2013). Potential role of wildlife in pathogenic contamination of fresh produce. Hum Wildl Interact, 7(1), 140–157.
  • Jay, M.T., Cooley, M., Carychao, D., Wiscomb, G.W., Sweitzer, R.A., Crawford‐Miksza, L., Farrar, J.A., Lau, D.K., O'Connell, J., Millington, A., Asmundson, R.V., Atwill, E.R., & Mandrell, R.E. (2007). Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feral Swine near Spinach Fields and Cattle, Central California Coast. Emerg Infect Dis, 13(12), 1908–1911.
  • Co-Management of Food Safety and Sustainability, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
  • Wild Farm Alliance: Healthy Diverse Ecosystems Help Keep Pathogens in Check |
  • Nielsen, E.M., Skov, M.N., Madsen, J.J., Lodal, J., Jespersen, J.B., & Baggesen, D.L. (2004). Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in wild birds and rodents in close proximity to farms. Appl Environ Micro, 70(11), 6944–6947.
  • Laidler, M.R., Tourdjman, M., Buser, G.L., Hostetler, T., Repp, K.K., Leman, R., Samadpour, M., Keene, W.E. (2013). Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of locally grown strawberries contaminated by deer. Clin Infect Dis, 57(8), 1129–1134.
  • Gruszynski, K., Pao, S., Kim, C., Toney, D., Wright, K., Ross, P.G., Colon, A., & Levine, S. (2014). Evaluating Wildlife as a Potential Source of Salmonella serotype Newport (JJPX01.0061) Contamination for Tomatoes on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Zoonoses and Public Health, 61(3), 202–207.
  • Karp, D.S., Gennet, S., Kilonzo, C., Partyka, M., Chaumont, N., Atwill, E.R., & Kremen, C. (2015). Co-managing Fresh Produce for Nature Conservation and Food Safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(35), 11126–11131.
  • Williams-Whitmer, L.M., Brittingham, M.C., & Casalena, M.J. (1999). Penn State Extension: Wildlife Damage Control—Geese, Ducks, and Swans
  • Conover, M. (2001). Resolving human–wildlife conflicts: the science of wildlife damage management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA
  • Gilsdorf, J.M., Hygnstrom, S.E., & VerCauteren, K.C. (2003). Use of frightening devices in wildlife damage management. USDA National Wildlife Research Center—Staff Publications.
  • Dickman, A.J. (2010). Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human–wildlife conflict. Animal Conserv, 13(5), 458–466.
  • Anderson, A., et al. (2013). Bird damage to select fruit crops: The cost of damage and benefits of control in five states. Crop Protect, 52, 103–106.
  • Baldwin, R.A., Salmon, T.P., Schmidt, R.H., & Timm, R.M. (2013). Wildlife pests of California agriculture: Regional variability and subsequent impacts on management. Crop Protect, 46, 29–37.
  • VerCauteren, K.C., Seward, N.W., Hirchert, D.L., Jones, M.L., & Beckerman, S.F. (2005). Dogs for reducing wildlife damage to organic crops: A case study. Nolte DL, Fagerstone KA (eds) Proceedings of the Eleventh Wildlife Damage Management Conference. National Wildlife Research Center, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture, 286–293.
  • Lengacher, B., Kline, T.R., Harpster. L, Williams, M.L., & LeJeune, J.T. (2010). Low Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Horses in Ohio USA. J Food Prot, 73(11), 2089–2092.
  • Jay-Russell, M.T., Hake, A.F., Bengson, Y., Thiptara, A., & Nguyen, T. (2014). Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border. PLoS ONE 9(11): e113433.
  • Sanderson, M.W., Sargeant, J.M., Shi, X., Nagaraja, T.G., Zurek, L., & Alam, M.J. (2006). Longitudinal emergence and distribution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 genotypes in a beef feedlot. Appl Environ Micro, 72(12), 7614–7619.
  • Wang, G., Zhao, T., & Doyle, M.P. (1996). Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine feces. Appl Environ Micro, 62(7), 2567–2570.
  • Strawn, L.K., Fortes, E.D., Bihn, E.A., Nightingale, K.K., Gröhn, Y.T., Worobo, R.W., Wiedmann, M., Bergholz, P.W. (2013). Landscape and meteorological factors affecting prevalence of three food-borne pathogens in fruit and vegetable farms. Appl Environ Micro, 79(2), 588–600.
  • Hale, C.R., et al. (2012). Estimates of enteric illness attributable to contact with animals and their environments in the United States. Clin Infect Dis, 54(suppl 5), S472–S479.
  • Roug, A., Byrne, B.A., Conrad, P.A., & Miller, W.A. (2013). Zoonotic fecal pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in county fair animals. Comparative Immune, Micro, and Infect Dis, 36(3), 303–308.
  • Park, S., Szonyi, B., Gautam, R., Nightingale, K., Anciso, J., & Ivanek, R. (2012) Risk factors for microbial contamination in fruits and vegetables at the pre-harvest level: a systematic review. J Food Prot, 75(11), 2055–2081.
  • California Leafy Green Products Handler Marketing Agreement (LGMA) —Assessing Animal Activity in the Field

Module 5 – Agricultural Water: Part I

  • Beuchat, L.R. (2006). Vectors and conditions for pre-harvest contamination of fruits and vegetables with pathogens capable of causing enteric diseases. Brit Food J, 108(1), 38–53.
  • Guan, T.Y., Blank, G., Ismond, A., & Van Acker, R. (2001). Fate of foodborne bacterial pathogens in pesticide products. J Sci Food Agric, 81(5), 503–512.
  • Steele, M., & Odumeru, J. (2004). Irrigation water as source of foodborne pathogens on fruit and vegetables. J Food Prot, 67(12), 2839–2849.
  • Stine, S.W., Song, I., Choi, C., & Gerba, C.P. (2005). Application of microbial risk assessment to the development of standards for enteric pathogens in water used to irrigate fresh produce. J Food Prot, 68(5), 913–918.
  • Lopez-Velasco, G., Tomas-Callejas, A., Sbodio, A. O., Pham, X., Wei, P., Diribsa, D., & Suslow, T. V. (2015). Factors affecting cell population density during enrichment and subsequent molecular detection of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157: H7 on lettuce contaminated during field production. Food Control54, 165–175.
  • Gutiérrez‐Rodríguez, E., Gundersen, A., Sbodio, A. O., & Suslow, T. V. (2012). Variable agronomic practices, cultivar, strain source and initial contamination dose differentially affect survival of Escherichia coli on spinach. J Appl Micro, 112(1), 109–118.
  • Yuk, H. G., Warren, B. R., & Schneider, K. R. (2007). Infiltration and survival of Salmonella spp. on tomato surfaces labeled using a low-energy carbon dioxide laser device. Hort Technology17(1), 67–71.
  • Suslow, T. (2002). Eliminate Fecal Coliforms From Your Vegetable and Fruit Safety Vocabulary.
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria
  • Wade, T. J., Pai, N., Eisenberg, J. N., & Colford Jr, J. M. (2003). Do US Environmental Protection Agency water quality guidelines for recreational waters prevent gastrointestinal illness? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(8), 1102.
  • FD&C Act Chapter IV: Food, Section 342 Adulterated Food
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2015) How did FDA Establish Requirements for Water Quality and Testing of Irrigation Water?  Questions and Answers with Samir Assar
  • Suslow, T. (2009). Standards for Irrigation and Foliar Water Contact. Pew Charitable Trusts at Georgetown University. Produce Safety Project.
  • Dufour, A., & Schaub, S. (2007). The evolution of water quality criteria in the United States. Statistical Framework for Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Monitoring, 65, 1.
  • Western Center for Food Safety. University of California Davis. Excel Tools to Calculate Geometric Means and Statistical Threshold Values
  • FSMA, Produce Safety Rule, 21 CFR 112 (2015), Comment/Response 237, pages 74451 to 74452.
  • Francy, D.S., & Darner, R.A. (2000). Comparison of methods for determining Escherichia coli concentrations in recreational waters. Water Research, 34(10), 2770–2778.
  • Pope, M. L., Bussen, M., Feige, M. A., Shadix, L., Gonder, S., Rodgers, C., Chambers, Y., Pulz, J., Miller, K., Connell, K., & Standridge, J. (2003). Assessment of the effects of holding time and temperature on Escherichia coli densities in surface water samples. Appl Environ Micro, 69(10), 6201–6207.
  • EPA (2009). Method 1603: Escherichia coli (E. coli) in Water by Membrane Filtration Using Modified membrane-Thermotolerant Escherichia coli Agar (Modified mTEC).
  • FDA Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-affected Food Crops for Human Consumption

Module 5 – Agricultural Water: Part II

Module 7 – How to Develop a Farm Food Safety Plan